After defeating the 1971 Indo-Pakistani war, Pakistan launched its own atomic bomb program in 1972 and accelerated its efforts in 1974, after India de exploded its first atomic bomb at the Pokhran test site, dubbed Smiling Buddha.   This large-scale atomic bomb program was a direct response to India`s nuclear program.  In 1983, Pakistan reached an important milestone in its efforts after secretly conducting a series of non-fissile tests under the code name Kirana-I. The Pakistani government has not made any official announcements of this type of cold testing.  Over the next few years, Pakistan has expanded and modernized nuclear projects throughout the country in order to supply its electricity sector and provide support and benefits to its economy. In 1988, mutual understanding was achieved between the two countries, where each pledged not to attack nuclear facilities. Agreements on cultural exchanges and civil aviation were also launched in 1988.  Finally, in 1998, India exploded its second nuclear test (see Pokhran-II), which asked Pakistan to follow suit and conduct its own nuclear tests (cf. Chagai-I and Chagai II). The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 began after the peak of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 and the Pakistan operation, Gibraltar, which aimed to infiltrate troops into Jammu and Kashmir to interpret an insurgency against India`s rule.  India has followed the example with a massive military attack on West Pakistan. The Seventeen Day War claimed thousands of lives on both sides and saw the largest armoured vehicle fight and tank battle since World War II.
  Hostilities between the two countries ended after the declaration of a UN-mandated ceasefire following the diplomatic intervention of the Soviet Union and the United States, followed by the publication of the Tashkent Declaration.  The five-week war claimed thousands of lives on both sides. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and tank units, with considerable support from the air force and naval operations. It ended with a ceasefire mandated by the United Nations (UN) and the subsequent publication of the Tashkent Declaration. Despite the status quo agreement with Pakistan, teams of Pakistani armed forces have been sent to Kashmir. Backed by Pakistani paramilitary forces, Pashtun tribes from the Mehsud invaded Kashmir in October 1947 under the code name “Operation Gulmarg” to conquer Kashmir.